The unnamed 40-year-old died on Thursday while working at Khalifa International Stadium in Doha, according to organisers.
The venue, which is also known as the National Stadium, forms part of the Doha Sports City complex and will host games up to the quarter-final stage in 2022.
Foreign labourers work on the site of one of the Qatar's 2022 World Cup stadiums
Image Caption: There have been widespread concerns over heath and safety on Qatar’s building sites
Originally built in 1976, the Khalifa stadium has been undergoing renovation to be compliant with FIFA’s stadium requirements.
Construction was being supervised by Belgium company Besix in partnership with local company Midmac Contracting.
According to the Doha Sports City official website, work was due to finish on the flagship venue in July 2016.
As well as redeveloping the existing building, temperature control systems were also being installed to create an optimal playing temperature for fans and players.
It is not yet clear what caused the accident.
A statement from Qatar said: “The relevant authorities have been notified and the next of kin has been informed.
“An immediate investigation into the cause of this fatality is under way and further details will be released in due course.
“The Supreme Committee for Delivery and Legacy shares our deepest condolences with the family for their loss.”
A worker tends to grass at a research and development centre to find the best playing surface for the football World Cup
Image Caption: Campaigners have previously called on FIFA to take action over the worker death toll
Controversy has surrounded the Qatar building programme since the Gulf state was awarded the World Cup in 2010, the first to be staged in the Middle East.
Poor worker conditions and questionable health and safety precautions have led to intense scrutiny of the high number of workers who have died on construction sites in Qatar.
Campaigners have previously called on FIFA to take action, with some claiming the death toll could reach 4,000 before the tournament takes place in five years’ time.
While the low-paid, migrant workforce has been the focus of much of the scrutiny, many European workers have been brought in to oversee projects.
Qatar has previously announced the death of four stadium workers, with one fatality the result of a work-related accident, but insist they have a good record for worker safety.
Labour’s shadow sports minister Dr Rosena Allin-Khan accused FIFA and the Qatari authorities of “putting profit before safety” and called on the new FIFA president Gianni Infantino to launch an urgent investigation.
The Khalifa stadium is also due to host the world track championships in 2019.